Forest species

Many forest species like insects, mammals and reptiles depend on deadwood and old-growth forests, which both are relatively scarce and show significant regional differences. The conservation status of forest bird species are more favourable than the other species.

Status of forest non-bird and bird species in 2018, in percentage


Population size trends for species in EU28 in 2028, in percentage


Forest birds

Forest bird species population status in EU28 in 2018, in percentage

Birds are essential components of forest ecosystems. They help disseminate seeds, regulate insect populations, control small-mammal populations, and are food for many species. Birds that are scavengers help decomposition animal and plant material on the forest floor. The cavities constructed by some birds, such as woodpeckers, serve as shelter for other animals.


Forest birds species population status in EU28 in 2018, by taxonomic order, in percentage


Common forest birds

The population of common forest bird species is an indicator to the stability of the forest ecosystem. The main pressures for common forest birds are land-use practices, climate change impacts and migration conditions.

Trends differ for groups of birds and within the group of forest birds.

The trend in the status of common forest birds in EU27 for 1990-2017

The reference year 1990 is set to 100


The trend in common birds in Europe - population index, 1990-2019

Between 1990 and 2019, the index of 168 common birds decreased by 8% in the 25 EU Member States with monitoring schemes. The decline in common farmland birds over the same period was much more pronounced at 27%, while the common forest bird index increased by 5%.